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Glossary | Phoenix Plastics Company | Central Plastic & Rubber Co.

Aldehydes

An organic compound containing the group —CHO, formed by the oxidation of alcohols. Typical aldehydes include methanal (formaldehyde) and ethanal (acetaldehyde).


Aliphatic hydrocarbons

A hydrocarbon compound containing carbon and hydrogen joined together in straight chains, branched trains or non-aromatic rings.


Aromatic hydrocarbons

A hydrocarbon compound containing carbon and hydrogen joined together in closed rings of carbon atoms.


Chlorinated hydrocarbons

Are a group of chemicals composed of carbon, chlorine, and hydrogen.


Concentrated sodium hydroxide

Also known as lye and caustic soda, and is an inorganic compound. It is a white solid or highly caustic metallic base and alkali salt and is prepared as a solution at various concentrations. Concentrated solution will have a large number of particles of the solute in the solvent


Dilute sodium hydroxide

Same as above but a dilute solution will have a small number of particles of the solute in the solvent.


Esters

Esters are chemical compounds derived from an acid in which at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group. Usually, esters are derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Esters with low molecular weight are commonly used as fragrances and found in essential oils and pheromones. Polyesters are important plastics, with monomers linked by ester moieties.


Halogenated hydrocarbons

The reactions of alkanes with halogens produce halogenated hydrocarbons. A hydrocarbon in which one or more hydrogen atoms has been replaced by a halogen atom., compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms of a hydrocarbon have been replaced by halogen atoms.


Hydrocarbons

The simplest organic compounds. Containing only carbon and hydrogen, they can be straight-chain, branched chain, or cyclic molecules. Carbon tends to form four bonds in a tetrahedral geometry.


Hydraulic Fluids

A liquid medium used to convey power in industrial machinery. Usually based on waste, mineral oil or water and work best if the hydraulic fluid has zero compressibility.


Ketones

Are organic compounds with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon-containing substituents. Ketones and aldehydes are simple compounds that contain a carbonyl group (a carbon-oxygen double bond). They are considered "simple" because they don't have reactive groups like -OH or -Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group, as in carboxylic acids containing -COOH. Many ketones are known and many are of great importance in industry and in biology. Examples include many sugars (ketoses) and the industrial solvent acetone.


Low molecular weight esters

Low molecular weight esters are colorless, volatile liquids with pleasant odors, slightly soluble in water. Many are responsible for the fragrance and flavor of flowers and fruits; for example, isopentyl acetate is present in bananas, methyl salicylate in wintergreen, and ethyl butyrate in pineapples. These and other volatile esters with characteristic odors are used in synthetic flavors, perfumes, and cosmetics.


Petroleum solvents

These products are formed by distilling petroleum into fractions of different boiling ranges and then by further refining. All these products are flammable. They are mixtures of hydrocarbons. Included are benzene-type chemicals: these are poisonous and are absorbed through the skin. They include gasoline, kerosene, white spirits, mineral turps and petroleum spirit.


Organic Acids

Are organic compound with acidic properties. The most common organic acids are the carboxylic acids, whose acidity is associated with their carboxyl group –COOH. Sulfonic acids, containing the group –SO2OH, are relatively stronger acids. Alcohols, with –OH, can act as acids but they are usually very weak. The relative stability of the conjugate base of the acid determines its acidity. Other groups can also confer acidity, usually weakly: the thiol group –SH, the enol group, and the phenol group. In biological systems, organic compounds containing these groups are generally referred to as organic acids.


Oxidizing acids

An oxidizing acid is a Brønsted acid that is also a strong oxidizing agent. All Brønsted acids can act as oxidizing agents, because the acidic proton can be reduced to hydrogen gas. Some acids contain other structures that act as stronger oxidizing agents than hydrogen ion. Generally, they contain oxygen in the anionic structure. These include nitric acid, perchloric acid, chloric acid, chromic acid, and concentrated sulfuric acid, among others.


Oxidizing chemicals

Oxidizing materials are chemicals that can decompose readily to yield oxygen or an oxidizing substance. Oxidizing materials are chemicals that can decompose readily to yield oxygen or an oxidizing substance. Common oxidizing materials include; ozone, nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid, perchloric acid and peroxides.


Ozone

is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula OO2. It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell. Ozone is a powerful oxidant (far more so than dioxygen) and has many industrial and consumer applications related to oxidation.


Solvents

A substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically different liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid or a gas.


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